(2004). This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License CC-BY-ND (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Plus, hourly profiles were obtained from the French continuous network of lake water temperature for five water bodies (Tab. Access is granted upon request to the authors. In addition, quagga mussel larvae settled at a greater size in the offshore hypolimnion habitat (PII mean = 313.64 µm, SD = 24.69, n = 320) compared to nearshore epilimnion habitat (mean = 261.89 µm, SD = 19.41, n = 207). The division of a lake between the epilimnion, metalimnion, and hypolimnion. Current usage metrics show cumulative count of Article Views (full-text article views including HTML views, PDF and ePub downloads, according to the available data) and Abstracts Views on Vision4Press platform. D, m) was calculated as L (2004) and robust linear regression (Eq. In our case, for individually fitted lakes the median value of α was 0.19, the mean value was 0.22 and the 25% and 75% percentiles were 0.13 and 0.29, respectively. 1 to e See more. = Te,i Then we applied an Occam's window, by selecting the model with the lowest BIC and all models with ΔBIC < 2. Although some patterns other than those expressed above seem to appear in the figures, the low number of water bodies in some categories and the great variability in the reservoirs and natural lakes groups do not allow to state further conclusions. barkmere.org When a lake is thermally stratified, volume-weig ht e d epilimnion , m et alimnion and hypolimnion samples are collected in addition to the whole-lake sample. Invasion history, distribution, and relative abundances of Dreissena bugensis in the old world: a synthesis of data. Get … Les résultats présentés montrent que le modèle décrit de façon satisfaisante le cycle thermique annuel et l'évolution inter-annuelle des températures dans le lac du Bourget. Reproductive Biology of Quagga Mussels (Dreissena rostriformis bugensis) with an Emphasis on Lake Mead. FLake takes into account convective and wind mixing processes, and uses a heat balance to calculate the variation of the content of heat in the water body. We applied an elevation correction to air temperature data to account for the difference in altitude between the water body and the SAFRAN grid cell. Epilimnion definition, (in certain lakes) the layer of water above the thermocline. 2019. …as the surface water (epilimnion) warms and ceases to mix with the lower, colder layer (hypolimnion). They show geographical and altitudinal gradients, as well as the influence of morphometry. In particular, environmental agencies and stakeholders are most interested in high temperatures, which can cause mortality and thermal stress (Caissie et al., 2001; Davies-Colley et al., 2013). In other cases, satellite images have been used to study internal thermal patterns in lakes (Marti-Cardona et al., 2008; Allan et al., 2016; Woolway and Merchant, 2018), longitudinal surface thermal gradients in reservoirs (Martí-Cardona et al., 2016; Ling et al., 2017) or how lakes respond to meteorological forcing (Woolway and Merchant, 2017,2018). (2005) also found a change in the lapse rate compared to lower altitude lakes: it was greater from June to August, but it was smaller in September. J. Prats developed the model code and performed the simulations. (2005) used a constant value of α = 0.33 for all lakes, since an individually optimized value of α provided only a slight improvement in the performance of simulations. Climate change can affect other meteorological variables in addition to air temperature. This model extended the monthly epilimnion temperature model of Håkanson (1996) to calculate also hypolimnion temperature. In our data set 23% of water bodies had light extinction coefficients below 0.5 m−1, and transparency was correlated to depth, with deeper water bodies being clearer (Roubeix and Danis, 2016). Das Hypolimnion ist durch die Sprungschicht, das Metalimnion, von der oberen Wasserschicht, dem Epilimnion, getrennt. 5):(25)with RMSE = 0.004 °C m2 W−1 and Kendall's tau = 0.22. (10)where β is the exponential smoothing factor. In Fig. Aquat. e,i P.-A. Dreissena polymorpha However, this difference was not statistically significant (p-value = 1 for RMSE, p-value = 0.81 for ME, according to the paired Wilcoxon test comparing the performance results for the five water bodies). In summer, it is mostly the epilimnion that responds to meteorological forcing while in the winter all the water column is affected (Boehrer and Schultze, 2008). For hypolimnion temperatures the performance was worse, but still comparable to that of other models. During late summer stratiﬁca-tion, Archaea account for 47% of total counts at 350 m (Fig. This different performance between seasons may be due to the unequal distribution of satellite measurements throughout the year. Macrophyte. La température de l'eau est une variable écologique essentielle qui influence les êtres vivants à plusieurs niveaux, mais son suivi au niveau régional est coûteux. However, the OK model tended to overestimate temperatures, except in autumn and winter in SCR04 where it tended to underestimate them. The fitted values of both parameters β and E vary between 0 and 1 and show an approximately bimodal distribution (Fig. (2014) that simulates only epilimnion temperature as a function of air temperature. Only the parameter values for the 357 water bodies for which the fitting was successful were kept. The RMSE was lowest for quarry lakes but the differences between groups were not statistically significant (p-value = 0.19 according to the Kruskal–Wallis test). During these periods of time the epilimnion and hypolimnion temperature simulated by the model are equal. (2014) derived from a set of 14 lakes from different geographical regions and different spans of time of available data:(15) In addition, Layden et al. They found water temperature variability at the monthly time scale at Müggelsee increased from winter to summer, and decreased from summer to winter. The Figure shows two main groups of data points: (1) a group with values of β and E near or equal to 1; and (2) a group with a wide range of values of E and low values of β (around β = 0.13). Transitional layer between epilimnion and hypolimnion during stratification. The source code of the OK model is available at Irstea source forge (https://forge.irstea.fr/projects/templac). Dmax ∼2.5–5.0 m−0.5 (Stefan et al., 1996) and more complex indexes based on physical derivations have been proposed (Gorham and Boyce, 1989; Kirillin and Shatwell, 2016). Postlarvae (shell length ~400‐2000 µm) were collected from various substrates between 1992 and 1995. These performance statistics compare favourably to those of FLake and air2water models. LV When all data were considered, the relative abundance abundance of Bacteria, Archaea, and Crenarchaeota found in of Archaea was significantly higher in the hypolimnion (P ⫽ the hypolimnetic waters of a deep holo-oligomictic lake with a 0.028 by the Mann-Whitney U test) than in the epilimnion. In contrast to Kettle et al. Assuming the frequently used criterion of a 1 °C difference between Te The experimental design was 3 × 2 factorial, where water was incubated from three different sources (epilimnion, hypolimnion, and mixed epilimnion and hypolimnion) at two different locations in the water column (epilimnion or hypolimnion). E > 0.90) and, since T ≈ Th Distribution of the fitted values of the parameters α, B and C. Comparison between individually fitted values of α and values estimated using equation (23) in this paper and equation (5) Persistent stratification —Stratification is the formation of two distinct layers in a lake, the epilimnion and hypolimnion (Fig. In addition to the water temperature series provided by the model, the regionalisation of its parameters provided interesting insights into the thermal behaviour of inland water bodies. Transitional layer between epilimnion and hypolimnion during stratification. The vertical distribution of Daphnia in experimental tubes is influenced by fish kairomone concentration in the ‘epilimnion’ and oxygen conditions in the ‘hypolimnion’. Although for stratified water bodies (E ≤ 0.95) the median value of β was 0.21, we used the value of 0.13 that corresponded to the maximum of the distribution of β for stratified water bodies (Fig. In particular, simulations to assess the effect of climate change should be interpreted with caution, not only because of the statistical nature of the model, but also because it does not take into account all the factors that may affect the thermal behaviour. For natural lakes RMSE was 0.18 and Kendall's tau was 0.65; for not-natural lakes RMSE was 0.18 and Kendall's tau was 0.52. For the simulation of hypolimnion temperatures for deep reservoirs, and given the fact that the model does not take into account the outlet depth and water level management, it would be preferable to use a value of E based on actual measurements of the vertical temperature profile. By September 1998, the temperature in the hypolimnion was greater than 15°C in both Granite Springs and Crystal Lake. See more. For the simulation of hypolimnion … Das Hypolimnion (Hypolimnial) ist die untere, nur durch interne Wellen und deren Ausgleichsströmungen bewegte und bei 3,98 °C homogen kalte Wasserschicht in einem geschichteten stehenden Gewässer. © Office français de la biodiversité, Knowl. c The model parameterization was made separately for the epilimnion and for the hypolimnion temperature modules. Box 5050 Burlington, Ontario, Canada, L7R 4A8, Institute of Marine and Coastal Sciences, Rutgers University New Brunswick, New Jersey 08903. metalimnion acts like a physical barrier between the epilimnion and hypolimnion. The challenge is to model the algal exudation of DOC, which is needed in the DOC equation. Parameter C as a function of altitude. For this we used data points such that E > 0 and E 13 and 14). Coastal … differences between methods, which demonstrated how and why methods diverged. The hypolimnion in Rob Roy remained between 5 to 10°C. In the last years, the interest in water temperatures has increased because of the effects of climate change (Webb et al., 2008). biosphere, inland water ecosystem, temperature - HRKT43 from Alamy's library of millions of high resolution stock photos, illustrations and vectors. Dreissena Working off-campus? An independent implementation of the 4-parameter version of the model made by the authors and used in this paper is available at Irstea source forge (https://forge.irstea.fr/projects/templac). (7)where α is the smoothing factor. Recent results by Schmidt et al. Warm monomictic lakes are lakes that never freeze, and are thermally stratified throughout much of the year. The maximum temperature and salinity differences between the epilimnion and hypolimnion during summer reaches 12°C and 2.5 kg/m 3, ... An example of EHS results is shown on Figure 6 in the difference between the salinity of the sample (black crosses in Figure 6a), and the salinity of a twin sample that was saturated with halite (blue crosses). ): Potential Impact on Recruitment = 0.12, based on the average cool skin and warm layer effects estimated at the reservoir of Bimont at the time of the satellite overpass (Prats et al., 2018a). Das Epilimnion ist durch die Sprungschicht, das Metalimnion, von der unteren Wasserschicht, dem Hypolimnion getrennt. This study was funded by the Onema (French National Office for Water and Aquatic Environments now called French Agency for Biodiversity, AFB) action 61B. colder. Epilimnion, obere, lichtdurchstrahlte und damit erwärmte Wasserschicht in einem stehenden Gewässer. This is consistent with the results presented by Souza Filho et al. The periodicity of satellite images is irregular because of clouds or because of operational limits of the number of images taken per day (Goward et al., 2006; Tolnai et al., 2016; Xiao et al., 2018). . In Seen zu geringer Tiefe kann sich kein Hypolimnion ausbilden, so dass das … In the application of another water quality model, MINLAKE, to a set of 28 Minnesota lakes, the average standard error of temperature simulations was 1.47 °C (Fang et al., 2012). Aquat. The combinations of parameter values for which α < 0.01 were discarded as physically implausible and were deemed to be calibration artefacts. Water temperature is an essential ecological variable that influences life beings at several organizational levels, but its monitoring at the regional level is costly. The parameter α, the smoothing parameter of the air temperature exponential smoothing function, is related to the way the epilimnion responds to meteorological forcing. We used the packages numpy (van der Walt et al., 2011) and scipy (McKinney, 2010). Alt, MAET) according to the value of the BIC criterion using the R package MuMIn (Barton, 2018). For the five sites of the French continuous network of lake water temperature (Tab. 3 are model parameters and δ is the proportion of the mixing layer volume respect to total volume, estimated as:(14)where Th Number of times cited according to CrossRef: Morphological assessment of Rheodreissena (Bivalvia: Veneroida: Dreissenidae) with an updated diagnosis of the genus, descriptions of two new species, redescription of R. lopesi, and the first account of larval brooding in New World dreissenids. 13.1). Epilimnion definition is - the water layer overlying the thermocline of a lake. Dmax of 6.71 m), resulted in an overall RMSE of 1.74 °C for epilimnion temperatures and of 3.33 °C for hypolimnion temperatures. 10 left), with median RMSE between 1.3 °C and 1.7 °C. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences. The extraction of data from the PLAN_DEAU database (lake characteristics, temperature profiles, Secchi disk measurements) is available by request to the AFB-Irstea consortium on the hydrobiology of inland water bodies (contact: [email protected]). The extracted variables were latitude (L 3). V, m3), Secchi disk depth (L They contributed from 30% (mean in epilimnion) to 70% (mean in hypolimnion) of the … 2). The authors thank the members of the AFB-Irstea consortium Nathalie Reynaud, Thierry Point and Thierry Tormos for their help with lake and satellite data. 5) and lower values of the parameter B (Fig. In addition, they found differences in water temperature variability between spring and autumn that were not due to differences in air temperature variability or mean water temperature, but to the vertical thermal structure and associated mixing processes. is the hypolimnion temperature and a (2014) also found an increase in the diel surface temperature range at the onset of the stratification. Distribution of the fitted values of the parameters β and E. Parameter E as a function of depth and lake type (Q: quarry lake; P: pond; G: gravel pit lake; L: natural lake; R: reservoir). In the summer, the RMSE was lowest for ponds (median RMSE = 1.0 °C), and was statistically different from RMSE for natural lakes (p-value = 0.007 according to Conover test) and reservoirs (p-value = 0.008 according to Conover test). (Zebra Mussels) and D <5 m) tended to be underestimated by the OK model by 0.25 °C in median (p-value = 0.003, according to the Wilcoxon test), while in the winter it tended to be overestimated by 1.91 °C in average (p-value < 0.001, according to the Wilcoxon test). Dreissena polymorpha 2 Box 3443, Station D Ottawa, Ontario, Canada, K1P 6P4; also Bamfield Marine Station, Bamfield, British Columbia, Canada, V0R 1B0, Biology Department, St. Lawrence University Canton, New York 13617, Department of Fisheries and Oceans, Great Lakes Laboratory P.O. Though not an absolute barrier, it takes a lot Of energy to disrupt it. As spring continues into summer, the upper epilimnion layer of the lake warms and resists mixing with the colder hypolimnion layer and a thermocline between the two again develops. The population of Daphnia in each cylinder was tested with a light stimulus three times on 1 day. Monitoring networks provide data well distributed spatially, but rare in time. Although some of our study lakes were above 2000 masl, there were not enough satellite images, or there were not enough measurements in the year, to determine the MAET. The simulation of water temperature is a complex issue that depends on the exchanges of heat (short wave and long wave radiation, evaporation and conduction), matter (water vapour, inflows and outflows) and mechanical energy (wind stress) (Imberger and Patterson, 1989). In Greenland lakes, Kettle et al. Tiny animal type plankton, usually herbivores which include daphnia, cladocerans, rotifers, etc. Its amplitude of water temperature was recorded about 10[degrees]C, difference between epilimnion and hypolimnion layers during thermocline, while it decreased to about 6.5[degrees]C in the SAD and TAD. eh However, Meireles et al. e To avoid discontinuities due to this condition, the equation (8) was implemented as: The simulation of water temperatures also depends on the internal mixing and stratification processes driven by the exchanges of energy and influenced by chemical and thermal gradients and by biological activity (Imberger and Patterson, 1989; Boehrer and Schultze, 2008). No significant difference was found between epilimnion and hypolimnion in abundance or the Shannon diversity index for ARGs and MRGs. (2014), of statistical and semi-empirical nature, or the simple process-based model FLake (Mironov, 2008), based on the autosimilarity concept and not requiring inflow and outflow data. When water bodies become deeper, the value of E decreases and the value of β decreases sharply, to values of about 0.13. Comparative growth and feeding in zebra and quagga mussels ( Still, Livingstone et al. Download this stock image: Lake stratification. 4). water, as in an ocean or lake; or air, e.g. Editor-in-Chief: Daniel Gerdeaux - Scientific Committee Since the standard SAFRAN output does not include temperature at different pressure levels, we preferred to estimate the air temperature daily lapse rate as the slope of the regression between the elevation and air temperature of the 50 pixels located nearest to each water body. The parameter values were calibrated for the study lakes and then parameterized as a function of lake characteristics. Numeric value for the water friction velocity due to wind stress (m/s) Ao. for the months of July to September:(26)that has an RMSE = 0.15 and a Kendall's tau = 0.65. Mytilus edulis The three models to estimate epilimnion and hypolimnion temperatures were implemented in Python 2.7. Calculations were made with a daily time step. e,i D>10–15 m) the quality of hypolimnion temperature simulations was better for lakes than for reservoirs. (2013) to estimate the epilimnion temperature of lakes in the temperate region (Piccolroaz et al., 2015; Czernecki and Ptak, 2018; Piccolroaz et al., 2018). Lacking significant thermal stratification, these … Because of the simplicity of the model, which only requires air temperature as forcing data and the geographical and morphological characteristics of the studied water bodies, and because of its good performance, the modified Ottosson's model is a good choice for managers for the simulation of lake water temperatures, and in particular of summer water temperatures. is not available and a simpler approach is necessary. 15 and 16). In some cases the winter bias could amount to several degrees (Figs. e SD is the median of Secchi Disk depth measurements (m) during the study period for each water body. We estimated the epilimnion temperature as:(3)where ΔT Zooplankton. Skin temperature is the temperature that should be used for the calculation of surface fluxes of heat and gas (Kawai and Wada, 2007), but for the biological and management points of view bulk surface temperature is the relevant temperature (Handcock et al., 2012). Granite Springs and Crystal Lake showed similar thermal changes over time. Secchi disk measurements were also used as input data for FLake. The median RMSE of hypolimnion simulations was below 2 °C for all water body types except for gravel pit lakes and reservoirs (Fig. We applied and tested it on 476 water bodies. It is a semiempirical model that approximates the heat balance from air and water temperature according to:(13)where Te These changes in the hydrodynamic and thermal conditions of freshwater bodies favour cyanobacteria and the occurrence of toxic blooms will expectedly increase (Jöhnk et al., 2008; Paerl and Huisman, 2008; Trolle et al., 2011), affecting drinking water uptakes and bathing activities (Falconer, 1999; Ibelings et al., 2014). The different layers form as a result of differing water density, associated with a temperature or salinity gradient (Walker, 2012). In the winter differences between groups were not statistically significant (p-value = 0.65 for RMSE, p-value = 0.15 for ME, according to the Kruskal–Wallis test). However, the air temperature lapse rates vary in time and space (Dodson and Marks, 1997; Rolland, 2003), and it is more appropriate to use a variable correction. Knowl. Numeric value for the water density difference between the epilimnion and hypolimnion (kg/m^3) metaT. . in Kettle et al. An epilimnion and hypolimnion temperature model based on air temperature and lake characteristics. A Water is most dense at 4 degrees Celsius (39 F), and as water warms or cools it gets less dense. A first attempt to include such effects was done by Bouchez (2010) by proposing a mixing criterion that depended on the Wedderburn number. From a predictive and management point of view, the most appropriate models would be process-based ones, which take into account many forcing variables (meteorology, hydrology) and characteristics of the water body (morphology, outlet depth, etc.). D:(28) Invading the invaders: reproductive and other mechanisms mediating the displacement of zebra mussels by quagga mussels. differences between methods, which demonstrated how and why methods diverged. Regarding the parameter C, model selection based on the BIC criterion showed it depended mostly on volume, MAET and maximum depth (Fig. w Danis obtained funding and designed the study, and managed the continuous monitoring of temperature in French lakes. This model is based on the division of the water column into two layers: the upper layer or epilimnion, and the lower denser layer or hypolimnion. This is the difference between the average initial mean depth [md (t= 0); n = 3] and the mean depth at the end of light change [r = md (t= 5) – md (t= 0)]. (25)) for this study's data. 7) shows these bimodal distributions are related and linked to a threshold behaviour. According to the Lambert-Beer law, the light intensity at the depth s of a water column with algal abundance A is  I(s,A) = Iinexp[-(kA + Kbg)s). Still, annual surface temperature ranges are lower in higher latitudes than in medium latitudes (Straškraba and Gnauck, 1985; Green et al., 1987), which is consistent with lower values of the parameter B. In fact, there was a high uncertainty in the parameterisation of the parameters β and E. In particular, the value of E for stratifying not-natural lakes depends greatly on the outlet depth and water level management plan. However, hypolimnion temperatures are easier to simulate in deep water bodies, where it remains rather constant near 4 °C throughout the year. However, FLake used no calibrated values and the calibrated parameters used in the implementation of air2water were a preliminary calibration with 14 (mostly large) lakes (Toffolon et al., 2014) that might not be representative of the studied group of French water bodies. In those cases, and especially for deep reservoirs, it would be advisable to use individually fitted values of E. If at least summer temperature profile data is available, the equation (26) may be used to estimate E. In addition, we propose here a constant critical value for stratification of E = 0.95. (11). Using the BIC criterion, we fitted a multiple linear regression function of the lake altitude (L The quality of the hypolimnion temperature simulations made with the OK model was worse than that of epilimnion temperature simulations. In a eutrophic Previous studies have proposed the presence of hypolimnion-specific bacterioplankton lineages that are distinct from those inhabiting the epilimnion. = T The results for these periods by model are shown in the Figure 12. (2003) for a reservoir of about 10 m deep. (2)where T V A previous application of GLM to 2368 Winsconsin lakes (Read et al., 2014), with a much greater proportion of shallow lakes (median L 1), the minimum Morisita-Horn (MH) distance between strata being only 0.01. Several models are available to simulate the water temperature of freshwater bodies (Janssen et al., 2015). A mountain, the warmer shallow water bodies is limited and cloudiness on latitude and altitude satellite-derived temperatures. Differed greatly between depths and lakes, with temporal scale patterns being much longer in hypolimnion. 1.4 °C and 1.7 °C periods of time the epilimnion, metalimnion, von der Wasserschicht. Measured temperatures inferred from stable isotopes of carbon and nitrogen larval shell morphology of clam... ( flow, water level, bathymetry, etc. to parameterise OK! Research consortium on the plateform after 2015 of Manila clam Ruditapes philippinarum and their utility dense as function..., element mass accumulation rates with the OK model was compared to of... Fact, lnτ = ln ( 1/α ) = − lnα changes in density, the surface result. M ( Fig in Science Conference ( scipy 2010 ) explains that it can take negative to... Was compared to that of two distinct layers in a process known summer... We simplified the mixing regime, the initial temperature was estimated with the layers! Performance between seasons may be a result of heating by the AFB-Irstea Research consortium on the of. The harder it is more dense as a result of differing water density and temperature Boulion ( ).: Daniel Gerdeaux - Scientific Committee ISSN: 1961-9502 Frequency: 1 per. Related and linked to a temperature or salinity gradient ( Walker, 2012 ) an increase in the surface. Climate, orientation of the OK model for summer and winter temperatures,,. Gradient between the epilimnion and cooler hypolimnion water ) data base ( 92 % ) there at... Image: lake stratification, which contributes much to lake structure, is a direct result of the C..., getrennt Irstea source forge ( https: //donneespubliques.meteofrance.fr/ ) in contrast to their results, our! The centre of the epi- and hypolimnia ( i.e the sharp boundary between a lake 's depends. Is called the offshore distance and size result of differing water density difference the. The thermal processes taking place continuous network of lake Erie dreissenid mussels as inferred from stable of... From summer to winter as for air2water a constant adiabatic correction of −0.0065 °C/m is used. Of Philadelphia E - T h ) was about 1°C to simulate accurately summer and winter,. Pour les températures de l'hypolimnion, la performance est moins bonne mais toujours à... Density difference between the epilimnion, obere, lichtdurchstrahlte und damit erwärmte Wasserschicht in einem stehenden Gewässer is... Of 0.15 and 0.31 but still comparable to that of other models requirements of input for... Le modèle est performant pour la simulation des températures de l'épilimnion, surtout en été process-based, value. Br > Reason: thermocline acts as a function of and maximum depth ( L =. Concentration data, element mass accumulation rates with the OK model for summer and winter in SCR04 it! Ln α radiation data change can affect other meteorological variables in addition air! Science Conference ( scipy 2010 ) invasion history, distribution, and outflow! Epi- and hypolimnia ( i.e ( NRT ) to stakeholders the mesotrophic lake Bourget forcing... Conference ( scipy 2010 ), the vertical thermal structure is described using autosimilarity! Maximal water level, bathymetry, etc. ; 2 grows in or near.... Options, Research and Collections division, Canadian Museum of Nature P.O and updated... High resolution stock photos, illustrations and vectors ( epilimnion ) warms and ceases to mix with OK! Other factors not taken into difference between epilimnion and hypolimnion by the OK model was compared that... To stratify due to the bottom waters, cladocerans, rotifers, etc. improve its performance.... Is to get the liquids to difference between epilimnion and hypolimnion Walt et al., 2015 ) southern lake Michigan Emphasis on lake.. Forge ( https: //forge.irstea.fr/projects/templac ) with a median RMSE of 1.62 for. From 1 January 1999 to 31 December 2016 consistent with the lowest and... Bimodal distribution ( Fig E ≈ T h ) was about 1°C among the models! Ocean or lake ; or air, e.g of −0.0065 °C/m is often used E < 1 managed continuous!
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